Normal Color Vision

Deutan

Protan

Tritan

Monochromacy

Types of Color Blindness

Color blindness (also spelled colour blindness) or color vision deficiency (CVD) includes a wide range of causes and conditions and is actually quite complex. It's a condition characterized by an inability or difficulty in perceiving and differentiating certain colors due to abnormalities in the three color-sensing pigments of the cones in the retina. Each cone is responsible for processing different wavelengths of light:

  • Blue: Medium Wavelength Light (M-Cone)
  • Green: Short Wavelength Light (S-Cone)
  • Red: Long Wavelength Light (L-cone)



Red-Green Color Blindness

Usually when people talk about color blindness, they are referring to the most common forms of red-green color blindness, which are genetic conditions caused by a recessive gene on the X-chromosome, but there are other types as well.

Red-green color blindness can be broken down into two main types:
Protan-type (“pro-tan”), which is a disorder of the first “prot-” type of retinal cones also called the L-cones (red), and Deutan-type (“do-tan”) which is a disorder of the second type of retinal cone also called the M-cones (green).

Types of Color Blindness

Color blindness (also spelled colour blindness) or color vision deficiency (CVD) includes a wide range of causes and conditions and is actually quite complex. It's a condition characterized by an inability or difficulty in perceiving and differentiating certain colors due to abnormalities in the three color-sensing pigments of the cones in the retina. Each cone is responsible for processing different wavelengths of light:

  • Blue: Medium Wavelength Light (M-Cone)
  • Green: Short Wavelength Light (S-Cone)
  • Red: Long Wavelength Light (L-cone)



Red-Green Color Blindness

Usually when people talk about color blindness, they are referring to the most common forms of red-green color blindness, which are genetic conditions caused by a recessive gene on the X-chromosome, but there are other types as well.

Red-green color blindness can be broken down into two main types:
Protan-type (“pro-tan”), which is a disorder of the first “prot-” type of retinal cones also called the L-cones (red), and Deutan-type (“do-tan”) which is a disorder of the second type of retinal cone also called the M-cones (green).

Three Most Common Types of Color Blindness:

Deutan

Red-Green Color Blind
Color Cone Sensitivity: Green

Deuteranomaly is the most common type of color blindness, affecting about 6% of men. It is characterized by a reduced sensitivity to green light, making it difficult to differentiate between shades of red and green.

Protan

Red-Green Color Blind
Color Cone Sensitivity: Red

Protan (“pro-tan”) is the second most common and is characterized by a reduced sensitivity to red light. People with protanomaly have difficulty distinguishing between shades of red and green.

Tritan

Blue-Yellow Color Blind
Color Cone Sensitivity: Blue

Tritanomaly is a rare form of color blindness that affects both males and females equally. It is characterized by a reduced sensitivity to blue light, making it difficult to differentiate between shades of blue and green, as well as yellow and red.

1 in 12 Men and 1 in 200 Women Are Color Blind

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All Types of Color Vision

  • A person with normal color vision can typically perceive up to 1 million different shades of colors.
  • Normal color-sighted individuals are Trichromats, meaning that they have three different color sensitive cones in their retina: red, green, and blue.
  • Each of these red, blue, and green cones are sensitive to different wavelengths of light and help to create color perception.
  • The unique separation and overlap work together to enable those with normal color vision to see all the colors of the spectrum.
  • It is believed that a person with typical red-green color blindness often perceives only 10% as many shades of color as a person with normal color vision.